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Which antibody and which cancer in which paraneoplastic syndromes?
  1. Paul Gozzard1,
  2. Paul Maddison2
  1. 1Clinical Research Fellow, Division of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
  2. 2Consultant Neurologist, Division of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr P Gozzard, Division of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK; p.gozzard{at}nhs.net

Abstract

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes can be associated with the presence of onconeural antibodies. These antibodies are the result of an immune response against a tumour that is ectopically expressing a neuronal antigen. The ‘classical’ onconeural antibodies (anti-Hu, Yo, Ma2, CRMP-5, amphiphysin and Ri) are directed against intracellular antigens and are strongly associated with underlying malignancy. By contrast, onconeural antibodies directed against cell surface antigens (eg, anti-NMDA, VGKC, AChR) have a weaker tumour association. This article gives a practical overview of the tumour associations, and the neurological associations, of the onconeural antibodies. There is also guidance on how to investigate occult malignancy in antibody positive cases.

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Footnotes

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Competing interests None.

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