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Making lumbar puncture more comfortable
A systematic review of diagnostic lumbar puncture techniques that may decrease the risk of adverse events comes to mostly predictable conclusions. Small-gauge, atraumatic needles decrease the risk of headache after lumbar puncture, as does reinsertion of the stylet before removing the needle—but bed rest does not. And a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): blood glucose ratio of 0.4 or less, CSF white blood cell count of 500/μl or more, and CSF lactate level of 31.5 mg/dl or more accurately diagnose bacterial meningitis.
Breast feeding does not influence IQ
Breast feeding has many virtues, but it has little or no effect on intelligence in children. These are the findings of a longitudinal survey of 5475 children, the offspring of 3161 mothers in the 1979 US national longitudinal survey of youth. Although breast feeding was associated with a …
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