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Angiographic detail of the intracranial and spinal circulation may be obtained by CT and MR techniques. However, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard because of its superior spatial and temporal resolution (time resolved MR and CT techniques are available). The clinical indications for the various angiographic techniques are given in the figures 1–7.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.