Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features. We should regard neuropsychological testing as an extension of the neurological examination applied to higher order cortical function, since each cognitive domain has an anatomical substrate. Ideally, neurologists should discuss the indications and results of neuropsychological assessment with a clinical neuropsychologist. This paper summarises the rationale, indications, main features, most common tests and pitfalls in neuropsychological evaluation.
- cognitive neuropsychology
- alzheimer-s disease
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Contributors CZ, AF, AM and ST: designed the article, collected and interpreted the data, drafted the manuscript and revised it. MT and MB: designed the article, collected and interpreted the data, and revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. CZ and ST: take full responsibility for the content of this review. All authors approved the final version of the article.
Funding This research received no specific grant from anyfunding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed. This paper was reviewed by Nick Fox, London, UK.