Systemic amyloidosis can be hereditary or acquired. The autosomal dominant hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis and the acquired light-chain amyloidosis, the result of a plasma cell dyscrasia, are multisystem disorders with cardiovascular, autonomic and peripheral nerve involvement. There are numerous investigational modalities available to diagnose systemic amyloidosis and to assess the extent of organ involvement, but it is frequently misdiagnosed due to its heterogeneous clinical presentations and misleading investigation findings. An accurate and timely diagnosis of amyloid neuropathy can greatly impact on the outcomes for patients, especially as there will soon be new gene-silencing treatments for hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.
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