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Skull base imaging, anatomy, pathology and protocols
  1. Bernadine Quirk1,
  2. Steven Connor1,2
  1. 1 Neuroradiology, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  2. 2 School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences Clinical Academic Group, King's College London, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Bernadine Quirk, Neuroradiology, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS, UK; bernadine.murtagh{at}


The skull base is the major bony and soft tissue interface for the intracranial and extracranial compartments. Its anatomy is complex, containing multiple traversing foramina that act as conduits for various neurovascular structures. The optimum imaging modality depends on the specific diagnostic question and area of interest; both CT and MR have complementary roles. This article focuses on the applied compartmental anatomy of the skull base and specific imaging protocols, and discusses the range of pathologies that neurologists will encounter.

  • skull base
  • ENT

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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed by Joshua Klein, Boston, USA, and Caroline Hayhurst, Cardiff, UK.