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Neurosarcoidosis: clinical manifestations, investigation and treatment
  1. Desmond P Kidd
  1. Centre for Neurosarcoidosis, Neuroimmunology unit, Institute of Immunology and Transplantation, University College London, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Desmond P Kidd, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2QG, UK; d.kidd{at}


Sarcoidosis affects the nervous system in 10% of cases. When it does so it can affect any part of the nervous system and with all degrees of severity. It forms part of the differential diagnosis in inflammatory, infective, neoplastic and degenerative neurological diseases and may be very difficult to diagnose without histological confirmation. Recent clinical studies and the increasing availability of new biological treatments allow a much clearer understanding of the disease. This review summarises its clinical features, imaging and laboratory characteristics, treatment and outcome.

  • neuroimmunology
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  • Contributors DPK wrote this review and was responsible for the interpretation of the data presented and the cited literature.

  • Funding The author has not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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