Axial myopathy is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterised by selective involvement of the paraspinal muscles, and presenting either as a bent spine and/or dropped head syndrome. The axial muscles can be involved in various conditions, including neuromuscular disease, movement disorders, spinal disease and metabolic disorders. There have been recent descriptions of disorders with selective axial muscle involvement, but overall axial myopathy remains under-recognised. Here, we review disorders of axial muscle function, provide guidance on interpreting axial muscles imaging and suggest a diagnostic algorithm to evaluate patients with axial muscles weakness.
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