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Diabetes mellitus: what the neurologists need to know
  1. Jeffrey Wayne Stephens1,
  2. David M Williams2,
  3. Richard Chudleigh3
  1. 1 Diabetes Research Group, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, UK
  2. 2 Diabetes Centre, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK
  3. 3 Diabetes Centre, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Jeffrey Wayne Stephens, Diabetes, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, Swansea, UK; j.w.stephens{at}


Diabetes mellitus is a common condition associated with numerous complications and comorbidities. The diabetes spectrum includes type 1, type 2 and other forms of diabetes, which may be associated with medical therapies and genetic factors. Type 2 diabetes is managed with lifestyle, oral therapies, non-insulin-based injectables and subsequently insulin. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin from the time of diagnosis. In recent years, there have been considerable developments in the therapies available to treat type 2 diabetes and some of these also afford cardiorenal protection. This review summarises the nature, complications and therapeutic advances in the field of diabetes and provides a concise review for neurologists. Managing diabetes optimally prevents complications and all medical specialties need a basic understanding of the principles involved in diabetes care.

  • diabetes mellitus

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  • Contributors All authors have contributed to the preparation of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally reviewed by Gareth Llewelyn, Gwent, UK, Suzanne Phillips, Gloucester, UK and Martin Sadler, Plymouth, UK.

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