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Amantadine toxicity causing visual hallucinations
  1. Jessica Marie Barbara1,
  2. Adrian Pace2
  1. 1Department of Medicine, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta
  2. 2Department of Neurology, Gozo General Hospital, Victoria, Malta
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jessica Marie Barbara, Department of Medicine, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida MSD2090, Malta; jessica-marie.barbara{at}


Amantadine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist with secondary dopaminergic activity that is used to treat Parkinson’s disease-related dyskinesia and to treat fatigue in multiple sclerosis. It is primarily renally excreted and so impaired kidney function prolongs its half-life and may lead to toxicity. We describe a woman with multiple sclerosis taking amantadine who developed acute renal impairment, which triggered florid visual hallucinations that resolved on stopping the medication.

  • multiple sclerosis
  • hallucinations

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  • Contributors Both authors were involved in the clinical care of the patient described in the case report, the reading and the final approval of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned. Externally peer reviewed by Freddie Vonberg, London, UK, and Gillian Ingram, Swansea, UK.

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