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  • Contributors All authors contributed equally.

  • Funding This work was supported by a center of excellence grant of the Parkinson’s Foundation, and research grants of the Gatsby Foundation and Health Holland.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Provenance and peer review. Commissioned. Externally peer reviewed by Simon Lewis, Sydney, Australia.

  • The term hopamine is a self-invented and patient-driven neologism (‘hope of mine’) by Noordegraaf et al 16 and represents the uniquely personal set of hopes, desires, experiences, and skills of each individual with a dopamine deficit. As such, the concept of hopamine - as a reflection of the unique personal characteristics of each person with Parkinson’s disease - supplements that of dopamine, as a reflection of each person’s unique physical characteristics.

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