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Contributors All authors contributed equally.
Funding This work was supported by a center of excellence grant of the Parkinson’s Foundation, and research grants of the Gatsby Foundation and Health Holland.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Provenance and peer review. Commissioned. Externally peer reviewed by Simon Lewis, Sydney, Australia.
↵The term hopamine is a self-invented and patient-driven neologism (‘hope of mine’) by Noordegraaf et al 16 and represents the uniquely personal set of hopes, desires, experiences, and skills of each individual with a dopamine deficit. As such, the concept of hopamine - as a reflection of the unique personal characteristics of each person with Parkinson’s disease - supplements that of dopamine, as a reflection of each person’s unique physical characteristics.