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Prevention and treatment of medical and neurological complications in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

Abstract

Treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage not only involves securing the aneurysm by endovascular coiling or surgical clipping but also prevention and treatment of the medical and neurological complications of the bleed. These acutely ill patients should be looked after in specialised centres by a multidisciplinary team that is available 24 h a day, 7 days a week. No medical intervention is known to improve outcome by reducing the risk of rebleeding but oral nimodipine should be standard care to prevent delayed cerebral ischaemia. For patients who develop delayed ischaemia, there is no evidence that hypervolaemia, haemodilution, hypertension, balloon angioplasty or intra-arterial vasodilating agents improve outcome. Lumbar puncture is a safe and reasonably effective way of treating those forms of acute hydrocephalus that are not caused by intraventricular obstruction.

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