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Refractory epilepsy causes physical, psychological, psychiatric and social morbidities and carries an increased risk of premature mortality. Resective neurosurgery brings the possibility of long-term seizure remission in those with focal epilepsy, but is only suitable in approximately half of the patients who undergo presurgical evaluation,1 either because a single epileptogenic zone is not definable or resection would compromise eloquent cortex.
The clinical use of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was first described in 1990 and as described by Pérez-Carbonell in this issue of Practical Neurology has …
Contributors I wrote the article myself.
Funding This study was funded by National Institute for Health Research (http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000272).
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
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