Axial myopathy is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterised by selective involvement of the paraspinal muscles, and presenting either as a bent spine and/or dropped head syndrome. The axial muscles can be involved in various conditions, including neuromuscular disease, movement disorders, spinal disease and metabolic disorders. There have been recent descriptions of disorders with selective axial muscle involvement, but overall axial myopathy remains under-recognised. Here, we review disorders of axial muscle function, provide guidance on interpreting axial muscles imaging and suggest a diagnostic algorithm to evaluate patients with axial muscles weakness.
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Contributors WW responsible for conceptualization, data collection, manuscript drafting; JA responsible for data collection, neuroradiology and manuscript editing; JD responsible for data collection, neuropathology and manuscript editing; SH responsible for clinical assessment (online video) as well as manuscript editing; RT responsible for critical review and manuscript editing.
Funding The authors declare that no funding was provided for this review from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Required BMJ consent forms for patients and volunteers were obtained for their participation in the creation of the supplemental video file.
Ethics approval Not required, submission is for a review not for a research article.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned. Externally peer-reviewed by Jon Walters, Swansea, UK.
Data availability statement Not applicable, no data as submission is for review article.
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