Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Acute intracerebral haemorrhage: diagnosis and management
  1. Iain J McGurgan1,
  2. Wendy C Ziai2,
  3. David J Werring3,
  4. Rustam Al-Shahi Salman4,
  5. Adrian R Parry-Jones5
  1. 1 Wolfson Centre for Prevention of Stroke and Dementia, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, UK
  2. 2 Division of Brain Injury Outcomes, Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  3. 3 Stroke Research Centre, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology and the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, UCL, London, UK
  4. 4 Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  5. 5 Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK
  1. Correspondence to Adrian R Parry-Jones, Clinical Sciences Building, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Stott Lane, Salford M6 8HD, UK; adrian.parry-jones{at}


Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for half of the disability-adjusted life years lost due to stroke worldwide. Care pathways for acute stroke result in the rapid identification of ICH, but its acute management can prove challenging because no individual treatment has been shown definitively to improve its outcome. Nonetheless, acute stroke unit care improves outcome after ICH, patients benefit from interventions to prevent complications, acute blood pressure lowering appears safe and might have a modest benefit, and implementing a bundle of high-quality acute care is associated with a greater chance of survival. In this article, we address the important questions that neurologists face in the diagnosis and acute management of ICH, and focus on the supporting evidence and practical delivery for the main acute interventions.

  • Stroke
  • clinical neurology

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

View Full Text

Statistics from


  • Contributors IJMG drafted the manuscript. The other authors revised the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned. Externally peer-reviewed by Anthony Pereira, London, UK.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Other content recommended for you