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Rhomboencephalitis—inflammation of the brainstem and cerebellum—has myriad clinical presentations including encephalopathy, cranial neuropathies, long tract signs and cerebellar dysfunction and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are a variety of potential underlying causes that respond variably to treatment, including infections, parainfective syndromes, inflammatory disorders including autoimmune encephalitis and paraneoplastic syndromes. Here, we review its clinical presentation and outline a practical approach to its investigation, aiming to facilitate prompt diagnosis and confirmation of the underlying cause, to start appropriate management early and optimise the clinical outcome.

  • infectious diseases
  • immunology
  • neuroimmunology
  • neuropathology
  • virology
  • neurovirology

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