Diabetes mellitus is a common condition associated with numerous complications and comorbidities. The diabetes spectrum includes type 1, type 2 and other forms of diabetes, which may be associated with medical therapies and genetic factors. Type 2 diabetes is managed with lifestyle, oral therapies, non-insulin-based injectables and subsequently insulin. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin from the time of diagnosis. In recent years, there have been considerable developments in the therapies available to treat type 2 diabetes and some of these also afford cardiorenal protection. This review summarises the nature, complications and therapeutic advances in the field of diabetes and provides a concise review for neurologists. Managing diabetes optimally prevents complications and all medical specialties need a basic understanding of the principles involved in diabetes care.
- diabetes mellitus
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Contributors All authors have contributed to the preparation of the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally reviewed by Gareth Llewelyn, Gwent, UK, Suzanne Phillips, Gloucester, UK and Martin Sadler, Plymouth, UK.