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Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis presenting with prominent autonomic dysfunction


A 56-year-old man reported 2 years of slowly progressive exertional fatigue, presyncope, paraesthesia, generalised weakness and nocturnal bowel frequency. He had an abnormal Valsalva ratio and significant postural hypotension. Serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin T were elevated. Transthoracic echocardiogram identified thickening of the biventricular walls, interatrial septum and atrioventricular valve leaflets. Global longitudinal strain was reduced with relative apical sparing, suspicious for cardiac amyloidosis. Technetium-99m and 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid scintigraphy supported a diagnosis of transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). However, urinary Bence Jones protein (kappa) was identified despite a normal kappa/lambda light chain ratio and no serum paraprotein. Bone marrow and buccal biopsy provided histological confirmation of amyloid. The bone marrow had no evidence of plasma cell dyscrasia but positive TTR immunohistochemistry. The patient had a T60A genetic mutation for hereditary ATTR. Overlapping cardiac and autonomic symptoms prompt an amyloid workup, which then must distinguish AL amyloid from ATTR pathology.


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