Table 5

Some common causes of nystagmus

Congenital
  • Latent/manifest latent

  • Idiopathic infantile

  • Spasmus mutans

  • Albinism

  • Low vision

Acquired ‘neurological’ causes
  • Multiple sclerosis

  • Brainstem/cerebellar stroke

  • Brainstem/cerebellar tumours

  • Paraneoplastic syndromes

  • Infections—for example, brainstem encephalitis

  • Degenerative—for example, primary cerebellar degeneration

  • Chiari malformation

  • Toxic—for example, organophosphate poisoning, antiepileptic drug toxicity

  • Nutritional—for example, Wernicke's encephalopathy

Acquired peripheral causes
  • Ménière's disease

  • ‘Labyrinthitis’