Table 2

Some visual field defects and their more typical causes

Field defectLocalisationSeen in
Arcuate scotomaOptic nerve, retinal nerve fibre layerGlaucoma, papilloedema, optic neuritis, ischaemic optic neuropathy, optic disc drusen, branch retinal artery occlusion
Altitudinal field lossOptic nerve, retinal nerve fibre layerIschaemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis
Central scotomaMacula, optic nerve, retinal nerve fibre layerMacular lesions, optic neuritis, ischaemic and other optic neuropathies
Centrocaecal scotomaOptic nerve, retinal nerve fibre layerToxic/nutritional optic neuropathy
Concentric constriction and enlarged blind spotOptic nerve, retinaPapilloedema, optic disc drusen
    BitemporalOptic chiasmDisease of the optic chiasm (usually adjacent tumour)
    HomonymousRetrochiasmal (ie, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiations, visual cortex)Strokes, tumours, etc, of the structures listed
QuadrantanopiaOptic radiationStrokes, tumours, etc
Tunnel visionRetina, occipital cortex (with macular sparing)Advanced retinitis pigmentosa, vascular disease of the occipital cortex, functional visual loss