Table 1

Movement disorders complicating shunts

AgeType of movementCause of hydrocephalusTime after shuntingRecovery and timeMechanismReference
17ParkinsonismPineal gland germinonaNot reported (but 3 days after roller coaster ride)Full, 1 month‘Shunt displacement with hydrocephalus’Lau et al11
28ParkinsonismOmmaya reservoir for methotrexate injection‘Following treatment’‘Immediate after shunt insertion’Not reportedCheshire et al16
32Parkinsonism‘Obstructive hydrocephalus’3 monthsImproved with levodopa‘Nigrostriatal pathway concussion’Ochiai et al13
59Parkinsonism‘Obstructive hydrocephalus’3 monthsImproved with levodopa‘Nigrostriatal pathway concussion’Ochiai et al13
38ParkinsonismNeurocysticercosis3 daysPartial, 3 months‘Changes in intraventricular pressure or malpositioning of the shunt’Prashantha et al6
46ParkinsonismAqueductal stenosis1 yearPartial with levodopa‘Parkinsonism associated with V-P shunting’Sakurai et al17
64ParkinsonismAqueductal stenosis4 monthsNone‘Slit-ventricle syndrome’Yomo et al18
26ParkinsonismEncephalitis7 monthsFull, 2 months‘Shunt malfunction’Tokunaga et al12
11Akinesia/parkinsonismTectal glioma‘Days’2 weeks, Partial improvement with bromocriptine and levodopa‘Recurrent hydrocephalus and tectal glioma’Rebai et al19
32Tremor/parinaud's syndromeNeurocysticercosisNot reported‘Several days after shunt revision’Hydrocephalus or direct trauma to basal gangliaKeane7
68BallismNormal pressure hydrocephalus‘Upon awakening from surgery’Not reportedNot reportedWalker et al20
14TorticollisAqueductal stenosis12 yearsFull, 1 year‘Local in the neck’Singh et al21
cerebrospinal fluid deficits
Congenital Chiari I13 years‘Near complete’, 1 week‘Positive rostral pressure gradient through stenotic foramen magnum’Elliot et al22
24HemichoreaMeningitis2 weeksComplete, ‘few days’Not reportedAlakandy et al5