Table 2

Risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis (from Ferro et al 8)

Gender-specific risk factors
Oral contraceptives54.3%
Puerperium13.8%
Pregnancy6.3%
Hormonal replacement therapy4.3%
Systemic conditions
Iron deficiency anaemia9.2%
Malignancy7.4%
Myeloproliferative diseases2.9%
Dehydration1.9%
Inflammatory bowel disease1.6%
Systemic lupus erythematosus1%
Behçet’s disease1%
Thyroid disease1.7%
Neurosarcoidosis0.2%
Obesity
Genetic/acquired prothrombotic condition (thrombophilia) 22.4% / 15.7%
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome5.9%
MTHFR gene mutation/hyperhomocysteinaemia4.5%
Factor V Leiden mutation
Prothrombin gene mutation
Protein S/C deficiency
Antithrombin deficiency
Nephrotic syndrome0.6%
Polycythaemia/thrombocythaemia
Infections
Ears, sinuses, mouth, face, neck8.2%
Other4.3%
Central nervous system2.1%
Mechanical factors
Surgery/neurosurgery2.7%/0.6%
Lumbar puncture1.9%
Head trauma1.1%
Drugs
Cytotoxic0.8%
Lithiumn.d.
Vitamin An.d.
Intravenous immunoglobulinn.d
Ecstasyn.d
Vascular abnormalities
Dural arteriovenous fistulae1.6%
Arteriovenous malformations0.2%
Other venous abnormalities0.2%
  • MTHFR, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. n.d, not described