Table 1

Summary of case series/cohort studies in neurological disorders containing a minimum of five patients

PaperPopulationPatient detailsPregnancy outcomesMS/NMO outcomes
Seyed Ahadi et al 48 NMOSD; RTX only8 patients, exposure within 6M
2 treated during pregnancy (17/40, 30/40)
2 elective terminations (5/40 and 8/40)
1 stillbirth at 36/40 (nuchal cord)
Relapse free
Seyed Ahadi et al 49 MS; RTX only21 patients, median time from RTX to pregnancy 7M (SD 5M)
1 treated in pregnancy, 2 ongoing
10 live births–1 preterm birth
7 elective terminations, 2 T1 miscarriages
Relapse free
Kim et al 50 NMOSD; RTX only11 women/15 pregnancies; median time from RTX to pregnancy 3M ; 1 T1 exposure11 live births
1 elective abortion, 3 T1 miscarriages
1 relapse in pregnancy, same patient had PP relapse
Kümpfel et al 19 MS, NMOSD, other neuroinflammation;
81 women/88 pregnancies/67 included
All treated within 12M of pregnancy
60/68 - live birth (1 twin), 9 premature
5 miscarriages; 2 MCM- VSD, ASD with pulmonary stenosis
Relapse free in pregnancy
5/29 relapse PP
Das et al 22 MS and NMOSD; RTX only11 pregnancies, 10 within 6M RTXAll term births, healthy childrenRelapse free in pregnancy
1 relapse PP
Dobson et al 14 MS; OCR only1223 pregnancies, 414 exposure within 3M, 128 with T1 exposure
604 known outcomes
Where OCR used within 3M of conception: 171 live births
20 elective terminations, 29 miscarriages
4 stillbirths, 2 ectopic pregnancies; 7/604 MCM
Not reported
Hellwig et al MS; Ofatumamab32 pregnancies, 4 exposure within 6M
12 with T1 exposure
23 known outcomes: 11 live births,
6 miscarriages, 6 elective terminations
Not reported
Razaz et al 51 MS; RTX only76 suspended RTX for pregnancyNot reported1 pregnancy relapse in T1
1 patient with gad lesion PP
Smith et al 17 MS; RTX only55 women/74 pregnancies
50 within 6M of RTX, 9 T1 exposure
38 live births (37 pregnancies); 4 preterm births (1 twins)
23 T1 miscarriages, 1 neonatal death (27/40 twin), 1 perinatal stroke
1 relapse in pregnancy
1 relapse PP
  • ASD, atrial septal defect ; MCM, Major congenital malformation ; MS, multiple sclerosis; NMOSD, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder ; OCR, ocrelizumab; PP, post partum ; RTX, Rituximab ; VSD, Ventricular septal defect .